Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease that occurs as a result of chronic inflammation of the intestines. There are two main types of IBD: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD is usually a permanent disease and can last a lifetime.

Contents

  1. What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)?
  2. Types of IBD: Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
  3. IBD Symptoms: Symptoms caused by intestinal problems
  4. Causes of IBD: Genetic and Environmental Factors
  5. IBD Diagnosis: Endoscopic and Imaging Methods
  6. IBD Treatment: Medications, Surgery, and Diet
  7. IBD and Lifestyle: Tips for Feeling Good
  8. IBD and Nutrition: What Foods Should You Avoid?
  9. IBD and Complications: What are the Side Effects and Risks?

1

What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)?

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease that occurs as a result of chronic inflammation of the intestines. There are two main types of IBD: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD is usually a permanent disease and can last a lifetime. The causes of IBD are not fully known, but genetic and environmental factors are thought to be influential. While the immune system normally fights against harmful organisms, in some cases it can mistakenly attack intestinal tissues and cause inflammation. IBD occurs predominantly in young adults. Symptoms of the disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody stools, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. The diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic methods and treatment may include medications, surgical interventions and dietary changes. Since IBD is a chronic disease, its treatment can be sustained for many years. Early initiation of treatment is extremely important in terms of controlling symptoms and preventing long-term complications.
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2

Types of IBD: Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is divided into two main types: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.


Crohn’s disease
can cause inflammation in any area of the intestines. This disease usually begins in the inner layer of the intestines and can then spread to the entire intestinal wall. Crohn’s disease can cause wounds, constrictions, and fistulas in the intestines. This disease is usually treated with oral medications, but sometimes surgical intervention may be required.


Ulcerative colitis
, on the other hand, causes inflammation in the large intestine (colon). This disease begins in the inner layer of the intestines and can then cover the entire large intestine. Ulcerative colitis can cause symptoms such as bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, weight loss, and fatigue. Treatment includes medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgical interventions.

Although Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have similarities in terms of their symptoms and treatments, they also have differences. Accurate recognition of the type of IBD is extremely important in choosing the appropriate treatment.

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3

IBD Symptoms: Symptoms caused by intestinal problems

Symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include symptoms caused by intestinal problems. These symptoms may differ in each person and may vary depending on the type of disease. Some common symptoms include:

  • Stomachache: Pain may occur in the abdomen, which is often felt in the form of cramps.
  • Diarrhea: Frequent and watery stools, sometimes bloody or mucous.
  • Constipation: Difficulty defecating and hard stools.
  • Abdominal distension: Feeling of bloating in the abdomen.
  • Hemorrhage: Bloody stools or rectal bleeding.
  • Fatigue: Feeling of weakness, weakness and fatigue.
  • Loss of appetite: Decreased desire to eat.
  • Kilogram loss: Sudden and unwanted weight loss.

These symptoms can indicate IBD as well as many other intestinal diseases. Therefore, it is extremely important to observe the severity and duration of your symptoms and consult a doctor.

4

Causes of IBD: Genetic and Environmental Factors

The causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not fully known, but genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Some research suggests that IBD is an autoimmune disease.

Genetic factors: Individuals with a family history of IBD have a higher risk of developing the disease. Certain genes are thought to be associated with the occurrence of IBD. However, there is evidence that these genes are not the exact cause of the disease.

Environmental factors: Environmental factors are thought to have an effect on the emergence of IBD. Smoking, infections, medications, and eating habits can increase the risk of IBD. Some studies show that a western-style diet increases the risk of IBD.

The exact cause of IBD is unknown and is thought to be the result of a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

5

IBD Diagnosis: Endoscopic and Imaging Methods

The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be made by performing a series of tests. Usually, a series of imaging and endoscopic tests are used for diagnosis.


Endoscopic tests:
These tests are performed by inserting a thin and flexible tube called an endoscope into the intestines. These tests include
colonoscopy
, sigmoidoscopy, and upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. These tests are used to see the internal structure of the intestines and take a biopsy.

Imaging tests: These tests include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bowel imaging tests. These tests are used to visualize the intestines and, in some cases, are done by injecting a contrast agent.

Blood tests: Blood tests used to diagnose IBD include C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) tests, known as markers of inflammation. These tests look for the presence of high levels of these markers, which indicate signs of inflammation.

The diagnosis of IBD can be made by performing a series of tests. These tests include endoscopic tests, imaging tests, and blood tests. Based on the results of these tests, the doctor can diagnose IBD and determine treatment options.

6

IBD Treatment: Medications, Surgery, and Diet

Treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can vary depending on the severity and type of disease. Methods used to treat IBD include medications, surgery, and diet therapy. Drug therapy: The most commonly used method in the treatment of IBD is drug therapy. These drugs are used to reduce inflammation and symptoms. Medications include 5-aminosalicylic acids (5-ASA), corticosteroids, immune modulators, and biologic agents. Surgical treatment: Surgery is a rarely used method in the treatment of IBD. However, in some cases, surgery may be necessary when there is no response to drug therapy or serious complications occur. In surgical treatment, diseased sections of the intestine can be removed or procedures such as joining the intestines can be performed. Diet therapy: In the treatment of IBD, diet can help reduce symptoms. It is known that certain foods and drinks can increase symptoms. For this reason, some patients try to control their symptoms by making dietary changes. However, it should be noted that dietary changes may not have the same effect in every patient. Treatment for IBD can vary depending on the type and severity of the disease. Medications, surgery, and diet therapy are the most common methods used to treat IBD. Knowing about treatment options and cooperating with your doctor is important for getting your IBD symptoms under control.

7

IBD and Lifestyle: Tips for Feeling Good

Although IBD cannot be completely cured with lifestyle changes, it can help alleviate the symptoms of this disease. Below are some suggestions to help IBD patients feel good:

  • Follow a healthy diet: People with IBD should avoid certain foods and may need to take certain nutritional supplements to tolerate nutrients better. However, most IBD patients can follow a healthy diet by working with a dietitian on nutrition. This diet can help reduce disease activity, maintain body weight, and ensure adequate nutrient intake.
  • Reduce stress: IBD symptoms can increase with stress. You can use techniques such as yoga, meditation, deep breathing exercises, massage, and acupuncture to reduce stress.
  • Quit smoking: IBD is associated with smoking, and smokers have more severe symptoms.
  • Exercise regularly: Regular exercise can reduce IBD symptoms and improve overall health.
  • Take medications regularly: Treatment for IBD is usually done with medications. Taking medications regularly helps keep the disease under control.

Keep in touch with your doctor: Keeping IBD symptoms under control requires regular doctor visits and keeping in touch. Meet with your doctor regularly, talk openly about your symptoms, and follow up on your treatment.

8

IBD and Nutrition: What Foods Should You Avoid?

Nutrition is very important for IBD patients. Certain foods can worsen symptoms or increase inflammation. Here are some of the foods that IBD patients should avoid:

  • Milk and dairy products: Many people with IBD are lactose intolerant, so consuming milk and dairy products can cause problems.
  • Foods with excess fiber: Fibrous foods stimulate the bowels, but in IBD patients, they can irritate the intestines and worsen symptoms.
  • Spicy foods: Spicy foods, especially cayenne peppers, can irritate the intestines and worsen symptoms.
  • Alcohol and caffeine: Alcohol and caffeine stimulate the intestines and can worsen symptoms.
  • Sugary foods: People with IBD should generally avoid sugary foods because they can promote the growth of gut bacteria.

On the other hand, IBD patients may benefit from certain foods. For example, healthy foods such as low-fat protein sources, vegetables, fruits, and small grain consumption can facilitate digestion and provide the nutrients the body needs. IBD patients are advised to plan their diet by talking to their doctor.

9

IBD and Complications: What are the Side Effects and Risks?

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease that can cause serious complications. Here are the possible complications that people with IBD may face:
  • Intestinal obstruction: Narrowing or blockage may occur in your intestines. This can interfere with the movement of foodstuffs in the intestines and exacerbate the symptoms of IBD.
  • Perforation of the intestine: In rare cases, IBD can cause holes in the intestinal walls. This condition can cause intestinal contents to leak into the abdomen and lead to a serious infection.
  • Cancer risk: Some types of IBD can increase the risk of colon cancer.
  • Skin problems: People with IBD may experience skin problems such as rashes, pimples, and ulcers.
  • Joint problems: IBD can cause pain and inflammation in the joints.
  • Diarrhea: People with IBD may experience digestive problems, such as frequent diarrhea or bloody stools.
Prevention and treatment of these complications means that people with IBD should be kept under close follow-up and appropriate treatment methods should be used.

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