Large Bowel Diseases


Which Department Deals with Intestinal Diseases?

Kalın Bağırsak Hastalıkları

Diseases of the large intestine Gastroenterology and general surgery departments take care of it. In cases to be treated with surgical methods, general surgery comes to the fore, and the Gastroenterology Department mainly deals with diseases that need to be managed with drug treatments.


What are the symptoms of colon diseases?

  • Abdominal pain pains
  • Gas and Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Don’t perform a big ablution one by one
  • Seeing blood in the stool
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Anemia
  • Anorexia
  • Weakening


Which test is used to detect large intestine patients?

1. Major ablution tests

  • Occult blood in the stool
  • Parasite in feces
  • Amoeba Antigen test
  • Giardia Antigen test
  • Clostridium difficile toxin a and b
  • Stool culture

2. Direct abdominal X-ray on the foot
3. Whole Abdominal tomography with contrast
4. All Western emar contrasting
5. Colonoscopy
6. Tumor markers

  • Cea
  • Ca 19-9
  • CA 72-4

7. Anorectal endography
8. Anal manometer


How to understand that there is a wound in the large intestine?

Fecal occult blood positivity can be seen especially in lesions of the right colon. Apart from this, the best result is with colonoscopy, which performs a direct observational examination.


Colon Bowel Cancer

Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer. In women, it is the second most common cancer after breast cancer. The frequency increases after the age of fifty. For this reason, in many countries, both men and women are screened from the age of 50 colonoscopy is recommended


Symptoms of colon cancer

Colon cancer
can give different signs and symptoms depending on which part of the intestine it affects. In cancers seen in the right colon and cecum region, since the stool in this area is soft and close to liquid, it may not show any symptoms until the cancer progresses.

On the other hand, only fatigue may be its only finding. The cause of fatigue is usually anemia if it does not cause blood loss continuously, even if it is mild, and iron deficiency occurs due to this.

In tumors on the left side of the large intestine, pain, pain, bleeding and partial obstruction can be seen. Signs and symptoms will be noisier as the stool hardens on the left side and in the areas near the exit.

In advanced stages, weakness, fatigue, weight loss, exhaustion will come to the fore.

It would be misleading to predict the stages of colon cancer based on signs and symptoms. For example, an advanced right colon tumor may not show any symptoms for a long time.


What is colon cancer screening?

Today, the most accepted and used method in terms of colon cancer screening is colonoscopy, which is performed every 10 years starting from the age of 50 in people who do not have a family history of colon cancer or colon polyps.

Apart from this, occult blood in the stool is used in the years between colonoscopy.

Tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9 and CA 72-4, which are among the check-up tests in many centers, can be used for screening purposes, but their sensitivity is not very strong in catching early cancers. In other words, in a cancer case diagnosed with a colonoscopy, these markers may be normal in the blood. Therefore, if these tumor markers are used for early diagnosis, they are not acted on the basis of them alone.

Some tumor markers and genetic alterations in feces and blood are being investigated commercially but have not yet entered routine use.


How is colon cancer screening done?

The most reliable colon cancer screening test
is colonoscopy
. Apart from this, it may not be sufficient for other methods to be used alone.


I want to be screened for cancer, what can I do?

You can have a colonoscopy by applying to any Gastroenterology department you want.


What should those with a family history of colon cancer do?

Those who have cancer in their family should be more careful and should be seen by a gastronautology doctor when they have the slightest intestinal complaints. The age at which the relative with cancer is caught is also important. If the patient’s relative is under the age of 50 when he is caught, other relatives of this person should have a colonoscopy screening from the age of 40. In other words, screening should start from the age of 10 years of the person caught. It is recommended to be screened by reducing 10 years for other age ranges.


Is cancer passed from mother to father?

The term genetics is not used much in colon cancers that develop after the age of 50. Because after this age, everyone enters the crucible of colon cancer. In colon cancer types that can be genetically transmitted, index cases are usually under the age of 50.

In addition to hereditary colorectal cancers such as Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer), FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis), peutz-Jegher syndrome, gardner syndrome, there are familial syndromes that can cause other cancers to patients.

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